生活上的疑問
Problems Associated with Lifestyles

生活上的疑問 Problems Associated with Lifestyles
  1. 厭食症
  2. 避孕
  3. 肥胖
  4. 戒煙
  5. 藥物濫用
  1. Anorexia Nervosa
  2. Contraception
  3. Obesity
  4. Smoking
  5. Substance Abuse

厭食症

甚麼是厭食症
  • 刻意拒絕進食,體重下降至少百分十五或者體形指數(BMI)低於17.5kg/m2 (體形指數可由下列公式計算:體重(kg)/身高之平方(m2))
  • 極度恐懼體重上升
  • 對於自己的身體產生扭曲形象,雖消瘦但仍害怕肥胖
  • 月經停止
  • 過量運動
厭食症患者有下列特徵
  • 長期刻意節食
  • 由減輕體重中得到滿足
  • 參與過量運動
  • 用過量瀉藥
  • 對於自己的身體產生扭曲形象
厭食症患者的外觀變化及併發症
  • 身體消瘦,面脥骨突出,眼睛下陷
  • 皮包骨
  • 頭髮乾枯,缺乏光澤,甚至大量脫落
  • 皮膚乾燥,面色蒼白
  • 血液循環差,手指發紫
  • 心跳減慢,血壓低,脈博虛弱
  • 體溫降低,不能抵禦寒冷
  • 腦垂體荷爾蒙分泌失調,停止月經
成因 多種原因造成
  • 傳媒洗腦: 傳媒近年大肆宣傳"瘦就是美"
  • 病態家庭環境:過份操控或保護型的家庭,引至青少年自信不足,敏感,缺乏主宰人生的能力及缺乏獨立生活的能力
  • 發病之後,患者滿腦子食物,控制食物變成患者唯一的自控方法
治療方法
  • 現存有很多不同的治療方法,有個人療法,家庭療法,意念療法
  • 根據每個患者的不同情況,多個部門的專家(家庭醫生,精神科醫生營養師和護士)會制定出一套方案治療患者
  • 當患者出現下列情況,就必須住院接受治療:
    1. 家庭出現危機
    2. 出現自殺念頭
    3. 心臟出現問題,如心律不齊,血壓低 (上壓低於 70mmHg) 或 心速慢(<40-50/分鍾)
    4. 低體溫 (<36°C)
    5. 脫水或電解質低
  • 專家與患者需要對目標體重達成共識,改變飲食習慣,以確保有足夠的熱量
相關網址

避孕

目的 防止性行為導致懷孕
方法
  1. 荷爾蒙療法: 避孕藥,藥物注射避孕.
  2. 非荷爾蒙療法: 避孕套,子宮環,子宮帽,女用避孕套與殺精膏
  3. 家庭計劃
失敗比率
方法 每年 100 位女士的懷孕率
綜合避孕丸 0.1 – 8
單一荷爾蒙避孕丸 0.5 – 8
藥物注射避孕 0.3
男性避孕套 3 – 14
女性避孕套 5 – 21
子宮環 0.6 – 0.8
子宮帽及殺精膏 6 – 20
家庭計劃 1 – 20
*男性絕育 0.1 – 0.2
*女性絕育 0.5
相關網址

避孕丸

原理
  • 雌激素停止卵子的形成,以及防止卵巢釋放它
  • 黃體令子宮頸的分泌變濃,使精子難以進入. 它更令子宮內膜不接受已受精的卵子
優點
  • 有效的避孕方法
  • 不影響性行為
  • 減低月經帶來的痛苦,及令月經更準時
  • 防止月經前綜合症狀
  • 防止卵巢子宮癌症,卵巢囊腫
  • 單一荷爾蒙避孕丸專為偏老及不能用綜合避孕葯的人士設計(吸煙者/心血管病患者)
  • 母乳餵哺時可服用單一荷爾蒙避孕丸
副作用
  • 常見: 乳房疼痛,頭痛或月經中期流血
  • 嚴重: 深層靜脈閉塞,高血壓,偏頭痛,肝臟問題,膽囊疾病,腎臟疾病,消沉
防備措施
  • 曾有乳癌,靜脈閉塞,肝臟問題,腎臟疾病及子宮出血人士不能服用
  • 高血壓,偏頭痛,消沉及患有糖尿病人士不能服用
如何服用 在以28天為一個週期的循環中: 前21天每日需要在同一時間服用避孕丸,後7日不需服用任何藥物或服用包裝中提供的糖分藥丸. 需要請參閱隨避孕丸附送的說明
尋找醫生 如有以下病例: 氣喘,胸口痛,頭暈,頭痛,手腳麻痺及無力,腳痛或腫脹,需盡快聯絡你的家庭醫生

藥物注射避孕

避孕藥物種纇
  • 三個月注射一次的黃體酮
  • 每月注射一次的綜合避孕葯(黃體酮及雌激素)
哪種人適合接受注射
  • 經常忘記服用日常裝避孕藥,不可以懷孕及不能用其他避孕方法的女性
如何使用
  • 肌肉注射,可由你的家庭醫生幫你注射.
  • 第一次注射可在月經的前五天,墮胎後,或產子後六星期.
優點
  • 非常有效
  • 方便
  • 不影響性交
副作用
  • 在頭3至6個月內月經的時間會產生變化.
  • 乳房疼痛,增加體重,作嘔等,與口服避孕藥的副作用相仿.
停止藥效
  • 何爾蒙會在60至90 天內排出身體.
  • 不會影響未來懷孕.

男性避孕套

原理
  • 避孕套防止精子進入子宮
優點
  • 防止傳染性病
  • 安全及不需處方
缺點
  • 它可以損壞及溜走.
  • 女性有機會對避孕套的橡膠敏感.
  • 可能影響性交
如何使用
  • 將避孕套套在勃起的陰莖上 (避孕套頂部的空間可儲存精子)

女性避孕套

原理
  • 緊貼陰道,封閉子宮頸,好像一個倒轉了的男性避孕套
優點
  • 防止傳染性病
  • 讓女性控制使用
  • 可在性交前8小時放入體內
  • 安全及不需處方
缺點
  • 需要學習如何放入陰道內
  • 減低陰道的敏感度
  • 有些使用者因避孕套的外環突出陰道而覺得笨重
如何使用
  • 在性交前把陰道套放入陰道,內環放入陰道頂部,外環保持在體外

子宮環

子宮環是什麼
  • 它是一個表面鍍了銅的 T 字形的塑料
  • 新產品可釋放黃體酮
原理
  • 它主要目的是防止精子到達卵子,防止受孕
  • 它延遲輸卵管排出卵子,以及防止受精卵子在子宮安定下來
哪種人適合使用
  • 有子女的女性 及被勸停止服用避孕藥的女性
怎樣戴
  • 在 產子後6-8星期內,由駐冊醫生替病人戴上
  • 如要除下子宮環,亦要找駐冊醫生幫忙
優點
  • 可作長期使用,達10年
  • 有效及方便
  • 容易使用
  • 沒有影響全身的副作用
副作用
  • 增加月經的流血量
  • 不適合有多個性伴侶的年輕人使用,因為容易引起骨盆發炎感染
醫療檢查
  • 在植入子宮環兩至三個月內要檢查一次,及後每年需檢查 一次
  • 子宮環每四年需要更換一次
  • 當認為它滑了出來,性交時疼痛,肚子痛,發燒或陰道分泌尋常,應尋求醫生協助

子宮帽

子宮帽是什麼
  • 它是一個有彈性環的圓形膠套。經正確的戴法使它可以覆蓋子宮頸,置於恥骨內側
原理
  • 防止精子進入子宮
  • 通常和殺精膏一起使用
優點
  • 預防傳染性病
  • 讓女性控制使用
  • 安全及不需處方
缺點
  • 需由醫生檢查,決定每個人適當的尺碼
  • 需學習如何適當地戴上
  • 某些女性可能會對其質地敏感
  • 較大機會發生膀胱炎
怎樣使用
  • 在性交前把它放進陰道
  • 性交後六小時才可把它取出來,這樣殺精膏才能運作
  • 在性交後6-24 小時內把它取出來
找醫生檢查

使用子宮帽的女性,每年至少要找醫生檢查一次以下情況下使用者需找醫生檢查以重新決定適當的子宮帽尺碼

  • 體重增加
  • 產子後
  • 流產
  • 墮胎

家庭計劃

家庭計劃
  1. 透過計算女性的週期,計劃在不可能成孕的日子性交,減低懷孕機會
  2. 用3-6個月的時間去計算排卵的時間,量度早上身體溫度和陰道分泌可幫助計算
  3. 不適合人仕:不規則經期,有疾病及生理上有變化 (例如生育) 的女仕

肥胖

普通學童肥胖的情況
  • 根據香港生長統計1993年資料顯示,年齡介乎6-18歲的人士,有10-13%的人屬於肥胖
肥胖原因
  • 進食含過高卡路里的食物
  • 長時間坐著
    • 缺少運動
    • 大部份時間看電視/玩電視遊戲機
兒童肥胖後果
  • 成年肥胖
  • 超高膽固醇
  • 血脂過多
  • 高血壓
  • 糖尿病
預防是一種最有效的解決方法

在學校推廣健康活動

  • 如可以的話,鼓勵學童步行上學以代替使用交通工具
  • 推廣基本運動如步行、踏單車
  • 鼓勵多行樓梯級以代替自動電梯
  • 鼓勵恆久運動從而提高學童對各種運動的興趣
  • 鼓勵參加課外活動如童軍等
相關網址

戒煙

吸煙時釋放出的有害物質:
  • 尼古丁:可引至上癮
  • 一氧化碳:造成疲勞,加速衰老
  • 焦油:致癌物質
戒煙是一個明智的決定,因為:
  • 戒煙後,患上心臟病、中風和癌症的機會將大大減低,而你亦可因此活得更健康、更長壽
  • 戒煙後,懷孕的婦女產下健康寶寶的機會將會大為提高
  • 與你同住的親人,將無須再承受吸二手煙的害處
  • 你可以省下不少以往用來買煙的金錢
  • 你的味覺和嗅覺將更為靈敏
  • 你的皮膚將會大有改善而你也不再需要擔心吸煙造成的牙齒和指間的煙漬
戒煙5大要訣
  1. 作好準備
    • 定下“戒煙日”
    • 改變原來的生活環境:把家中,車廂和工作地方的香煙和煙灰缸全部棄掉
    • 禁止所有人在你家中抽煙
  2. 爭取支持與鼓勵
    • 告訴你的家人、朋友、同事你的“戒煙”大計,並爭取他們的支持
    • 向區內的健康部門/機構索取有關戒煙的資料,查詢個人/小組輔導的方法
  3. 學習新技能
    • 分散自己的注意力,以免常常想吸煙
    • 改變平日的生活習慣
    • 分配休息和放鬆自己的時間以減低平日的生活壓力
    • 例如閱讀和運動等
  4. 正確地使用輔助性藥物
    • 可向醫生請教使用輔助性藥物如尼古丁口香糖,噴劑等來幫助戒煙
  5. 以勇氣和毅力面對困境
    • 大部分重新染上煙癮的戒煙者都是在頭三個月失敗的。但是,面對失敗千萬不要氣餒,因為再接再厲才有成功的希望。若真遇到困難,如戒煙後體重驟升,或周圍環繞眾多的吸煙者,甚至因情緒低落再萌吸煙的慾望,可向醫生或其他醫護人員求助。
伸出援手去助人
  • 當你成功戒煙後,不要忘記為大家作一個好榜樣,也去幫助你的朋友戒煙吧!快來做我們年青一代的健康大使!
相關網址
你可在這些地方尋找協助
機構 電話
東區醫院  
香港仔賽馬會診所 2555 0381 內線:13
牛頭角賽馬會診所 2750 5410
馬鞍山健康中心 2642 5895
下葵涌診所 2743 6377
醫管局戒煙熱線 2300 7272
Hong Kong Council on Smoking and Health Hotline 2838 3266
Hong Kong Smoking Cessation Health Centre 2855 0787
香港大學戒煙熱線 2855 9557

藥物濫用

前言 藥物濫用的問題於香港一向十分嚴重,而近年來涉及青少年甚至學童的比例更有上升的趨勢,其濫用的模式於過去數年亦有顯著的轉變。
藥物濫用的模式/種類 雖然調查指出海洛英(俗稱白粉)依然為最普遍被濫用者使用的藥物(七成濫用者),但另一方面精神科藥物濫用者的數字卻急劇地增長,其中 大約五成為二十一歲或以下,一成二仍在求學階段。 最普遍比濫用之精神科藥物包括亞甲二氧基甲基安非他明(俗稱搖頭丸/狂喜/忘我,四成濫用者),大麻(俗稱草,兩成六濫用者),氯胺酮(俗 稱K仔,兩成二濫用者)以及甲基安非他明(俗稱冰,一成七濫用者)。 濫用精神科藥物最主要的原因包括受朋輩影響(五成四),尋求快感或官能滿足(四成三)及好奇(四成)。而大部份濫用者花費於此類藥物的費 用一般少於三百元。 此外,其他藥物濫用例如嗅天拿水和濫用咳藥水,雖然相對地較少被報導或公布,但其問題仍然為十分重要。
藥物濫用的影響 藥物濫用的損害可謂十分廣泛及深遠,尤其與酒精混合使用時更為嚴重和危險。其影響包括:
  1. 成癮
  2. 昏睡
  3. 斷癮跡象:流眼水、流鼻涕、打呵欠
  4. 舉止失常、判斷力失準、記憶和思想受損
  5. 精神錯亂、失眠、抑鬱
  6. 有些甚至對心臟、肺部、腎臟及腦部有長遠影響
對抗藥物濫用 香港特別行政區政府及多個民間組織都提供了很多有關藥物濫用的最新消息、其預防及戒毒計畫。
相關網址

Anorexia Nervosa

When will you suspect one to have anorexia nervosa?

When the person has the followings:

  • Self-induced starvation and weight loss, usually 15 percent or more below ideal body weight or BMI (body mass index) <17.5 (BMI can be calculated by dividing the BW in Kg by the square of height in meter)
  • A strong desire to be thinner with marked fear of weight gain
  • A distorted body image (eg feeling fat when already very thin to others)
  • Obsession with food, occasionally accompanied by binging and purging behaviours
  • Ammenorrhoea, either primary or secondary
  • Increased physical activity
Features of person with anorexia nervosa
  • Prolonged self-imposed starvation
  • Self imposed extreme and rigid dieting
  • Dieting begins following a chance remark about size/shape or as a group behaviour with other adolescent girls
  • Derives satisfaction from weight loss
  • Marked interest in exercise and participating in vigorous athletic activities
  • Use excessive laxative
  • Distorted body image: despite an increasing thin physique, refuses to accept her emaciated status, believing and perceiving herself to be fat or overweight
What would an anorexia nervosa patient look like
  • Despite of very thin, can be bright and alert
  • Prominent cheekbone and sunken eye
  • Bones protruding through the skin
  • Dry skin/hair with blue cold hands/feet
  • Lanugo hair on face/limbs/trunk
  • Slow pulse rate
  • Low BP and hypothermia
What is the underlying causes
  • Remains unknown
  • Mass/Medium: thin is beauty
  • Environment: psychosomatic family (enmeshment, overprotective, rigidity and inability to resolve conflicts or display feelings)
  • Before the onset of illness, usually the person is conformist, conscientious, compliant and high achieving
  • After the onset of illness, control over food intake becomes the only available means to preserve self-identity and independence
How to treat person with anorexia nervosa
  • Multimodal approach: individual, family and cognitive therapy
  • Multidisciplinary approach: primary care physician, psychiatrist, nutritionist, and skilled nursing
  • Person with the following features need to be admitted and treated in hospital:
    • Family in crisis
    • Suicidal ideation
    • Cardiovascular complications (arrythmias, postural hypotension or systolic BP <70mmHg, bradycardia <40-50/min)
    • Hypothermia <36°C
    • Significant dehydration or electrolyte disturbances
  • When the weight loss is mild or moderate (10-20% below ideal body weight), outpatient management can be tried if the social situation is stable
    • The nature and seriousness of the condition must be explored thoroughly in order to establish a therapeutic alliance with the adolescent and the family
    • Eating habit must be altered in order to restore weight and to correct nutritional deficiencies
    • A target weight (around the average for the age/height) should be agreed upon along with the appropriate daily caloric intake to ensure its attainment.
Useful links

Contraception

Aim Contraception aims to prevent sexual intercourse from causing pregnancy
Method
  1. Hormonal method: oral contraceptive pills, contraceptive injection
  2. Non-hormonal method: male and female condom, intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD), diaphragm with spermicides
  3. Natural family planning
Failure rate
Method No. of pregnancy per 100 women/year
OC pills-combined 0.1 – 8
OC pills-progesterol 0.5 – 8
Contraceptive injection 0.3
Male condom 3 – 14
Female condom 5 – 21
IUCD 0.6 – 0.8
Diaphragm+spermicide 6 – 20
Natural family planning 1 – 20
*male sterilization 0.1 – 0.2
*female sterilization 0.5
Website

OC Pills

How it works?
  • Oestrogen stops the egg from maturing and being released from the ovary.
  • Progesterone thickened the mucus at the cervix, which makes it hard for sperms to pass through. It also makes the lining of uterus less likely to accept a fertilized egg.
Advantages
  • Effective method of contraception
  • Does not interfere with intercourse
  • Helps to reduce heavy or painful period and makes periods more regular
  • May prevent pre-menstrual syndrome
  • Reduces the risk of ovarian and uterine cancer and ovarian cysts
  • Progestogen-only pill (mini-pill) is intended for older women or others who cannot use the combine pills (chronic smokers/ those with history of cardiovascular disease)
  • Progestogen can also be used while breast-feeding
Side effects
  • Common: breast tenderness, mild headache, bloated feeling or mid cycle bleeding
  • Severe: deep vein thrombosis, high blood pressure, migraine, liver problem, gall bladder disease, depression
Precautions
  • Cannot be used by those with history of breast cancer, deep vein thrombosis, liver disease, kidney disease, unexplained uterine bleeding
  • Should not be used by those with high blood pressure, diabetes, migraine or depression
How to use it?
  • A hormone pill is taken at the same time daily for 21 days, and then no pills or sugar pill is taken for 7 days to complete a 28-day cycle. Refer to the individual drug insert
Call a doctor
  • If you experience any of the followings e.g. shortness of breath, severe chest pain, fainting or collapse, unusual headache, numbness or weakness of a limb, pain or swelling of legs

Injectable Contraceptive

Types of injections
  • Progesterone containing injection given once every 3 months
  • Combination injection (estrogen + progesterone) given once every month
Who is suitable for it?
  • women who find daily pill taking hard to remember
  • those who must avoid pregnancy
  • those unable to use other methods
How is it used?
  • Hormone is injected to muscle of the shoulder, front of thigh or the buttocks
  • First injection is given within 5 days of the beginning of a normal menstrual period, after an early abortion or 6 weeks after giving birth
Advantages?
  • Highly effective
  • Convenient
  • Does not interfere with intercourse
Side effects?
  • Changes in monthly bleeding patterns during the first 3 to 6 months
  • Breast tenderness, weight gain, nausea and others as in OC pills
Stopping the drug
  • Hormone leaves the body within 60 to 90 days
  • Will not affect future pregnancy

Male Condom

How it works?
  • A latex rubber tube prevents sperm from reaching the cervix
Advantages?
  • Protects against sexually transmitted disease
  • Safe and no prescription needed
Disadvantages?
  • Condom can break or slip off
  • Woman may be allergic to latex
  • May interfere with intercourse
How to use it?
  • The condom is unrolled over an erect penis allowing a pocket at end to collect sperms

Female Condom

How it works?
  • A polyurethane tube lines the inside of the vagina and covers the cervix like an inverted male condom
Advantages?
  • Protects against sexually transmitted disease
  • Allow women to control use
  • Can be inserted up to 8 hours before intercourse
  • Safe and no prescription needed
Disadvantages?
  • Decreased vaginal sensation
  • Should learn how to properly insert the device
  • Need to plan ahead
  • Cumbersome as the outer ring protrudes outside vagina
How to use it?
  • Put sheath into vagina prior to intercourse, with inner ring going to upper part of vagina and outer ring staying outside of body

Intrauterine Contraceptive Device (IUCD)

What is it?
  • It is a small T-shaped plastic device coated with copper, which is inserted in the uterus.
  • New product can release progestogen
How does it work?
  • To stop sperm from reaching the egg to fertilize it.
  • To delay egg from coming down from fallopian tube as well as preventing the egg settling in the uterus
Who is suitable for it?
  • Women who had children and older women who may be advised to stop the pill
How is it fitted?
  • It must be fitted and removed by a specially trained doctor, usually during a period or 6-8 weeks after delivery
Advantages?
  • For long term use up to 10 years
  • Effective and cheap
  • Easy to use
  • No systemic side effect
Side effects
  • Increased menstrual flow and cramps
  • Accidental expulsion of device
  • May have increased risk of pelvic inflammatory infection especially in young users who has multiple sexual partners
Medical checkup
  • Within 2-3 months of fitting and then at least once yearly
  • IUCD usually replaced at least every 4 years, depending on type
  • Consult doctor if you think the device has come out, experience pain with intercourse or abdominal pain, have unusual vaginal discharge and fever

Diaphragm

What is it?
  • It is a dome-shaped soft rubber cup with a flexible ring.
  • When fitted and inserted correctly, it covers the cervix and is held in place behind the pubic bone
How dose it work?
  • It stops sperm from entering the cervical canal.
  • It is usually accompanied by the use of spermicide
Advantages?
  • Reduces sexually transmitted disease
  • Allow women to control use
  • Safe and no prescription needed
Disadvantages?
  • Should have checked by doctor for the correct size of diaphragm
  • Should learn how to properly insert the device
  • Woman may be allergic to latex
  • May increase chance of cystitis -
How to use it?
  • Put device into vagina prior to intercourse
  • Do not remove it for at least 6 hours after intercourse to allow spermicide to work
  • Do not leave it for more than 24 hours
Seeing doctor
  • At least every 12 months for a check if the diaphragm fits
  • New size may be needed if put on weight, after delivery, miscarriage or abortion

Natural Family Planning

Natural family planning
  1. Involves reducing the chance of becoming pregnant by planning sex around the most fertile and infertile times during the woman's monthly cycle
  2. Recording dates of period for 3-6 months to work out time of ovulation, measuring morning body temperature and monitoring vaginal discharges can help determine when ovulation is occurring
  3. It is not suitable for women who have irregular cycle, illnesses or who have recent changes in physiology for example giving birth

Obesity

Prevalence of obesity in school children
  • 10-13% of children aged 6-18 is obese by Hong Kong Growth Survey in 1993
Cause of obesity
  • Excessive dietary caloric intake
  • Sedentary lifestyle
    • little exercise
    • more time spent on watching TV / playing games
Sequelae of childhood obesity
  • Adult obesity
  • Hypercholestrolaemia
  • Hyperlipidaemia
  • Hypertension
  • Diabetes
Prevention is the most effective way to tackle the problem

Promote physical activity in school setting

  • Encourage children to go to school on foot instead of traveling by bus if possible
  • Promote basic exercise eg walking and cycling
  • Encourage using of stairs instead of elevators
  • Encourage regular physical activity to cultivate students' interest in certain kind of sports
  • Encourage joining active extra-curricular activities like boy/girl scout
Useful Websites

Smoking

Toxic substances released by cigarette smoking
  • Nicotine: leads to addiction
  • Carbon monoxide: causes tireness, accelerate 'aging' process
  • Tar: carcinogenic substances, stains fingers and teeth
Quitting smoking is one of the wisest things to do, because
  • You will live longer and live better, as quitting can lower the chance of having a heart attack, stroke, or cancer.
  • If you are pregnant, quitting smoking will improve your chances of having a healthy baby.
  • The people you live with, will not suffer from the harm of second-hand smoke
  • You can save a lot of money previously spent on buying cigarette
  • Your sence of smell and taste will improve
  • Your skin will look more beautiful and you need not worry about the stain on your teeth and fingers
Five keys for quitting
  1. Get Ready
    • Set a quit date.
    • Change your environment - get rid of ALL cigarettes and ashtrays at home, car, and workplace
    • Don't let people smoke in your home.
  2. Get Support and Encouragement
    • Tell your family, friends, and colleagues you are going to quit and ask for their support
    • Get individual, group, or telephone counseling. Call your local health department for information about anti-smoking programs.
  3. Learn New Skills and Behaviours
    • Try to distract yourself from urges to smoke.
    • When you first try to quit, change your routine.
    • Do something enjoyable to reduce your stress, like exercising, reading etc.
  4. Get Medication and Use It Correctly
    • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved using Nicotine gum, Nicotine inhaler, Nicotine nasal spray and Nicotine patch to help the quitting process. Ask your health care provider for advice for the usage.
  5. Be Prepared for Relapse or Difficult Situations
    • Most relapses occur within the first 3 months after quitting. Don't be discouraged if you start smoking again. When encounter difficult situations like having other smokers around, having weight gain after quitting, suffer a low mood or even depression, do talk to your doctor or other health care provider for help and advice.
Helps others

After you quit, become a role model. Be a quit buddy for your friend as you know what it was like to be addicted. Become a women's health advocate to prevent young people from ever becoming addicted

Check these out
There are supports all around
Organization Telephone
Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital  
Aberdeen Jocky Club Clinic 2555 0381 Ext.: 13
Ngau Tau Kok Jockey Club Clinic 2750 5410
Ma On Shan Health Centre 2642 5895
Ha Kwai Chung Polyclinic 2743 6377
Hospital Authority Quitline 2300 7272
Hong Kong Council on Smoking and Health Hotline 2838 3266
Hong Kong Smoking Cessation Health Centre 2855 0787
The University of Hong Kong Quitline 2855 9557

Substance Abuse

Introduction

Substance abuse has been a serious problem in Hong Kong, and in recent years there is a tendency to involve increasing younger teenagers and even school children. The pattern of abused substance has also changed over the past few years.

Pattern of substance abuse
  • In spite of the fact that heroin remained the most common drug of abuse in Hong Kong (70% of the reported abusers), the trend of increased psychotropic substance abusers has been sharp. Amongst which 51% were aged 21 or under, and 12% were still in school.
  • The most common psychotropic drugs abused included MDMA ("ecstasy") (abused by 40.1% of abusers), cannabis (26.7%), ketamine (22.3%) and methylamphetamine ("ice") (17.5%).
  • The common reasons given for the abuse of psychotropic substances were under peer influence (54.3%), to seek euphoria or sensory satisfaction (43.2%), and for curiosity (40.5%). The usual daily expenditure on drugs of most individuals was below $300.
  • Other substance abuse, for example glue sniffing and cough mixture abuse is still significant and likely being under-reported.
Effects of Substance abuse

The range of detrimental effects from substance abuse is enormous, which, in most situation is augmented by simultaneous alcohol intake, they include:

  1. Dependence
  2. Drowsiness
  3. Withdrawal syndrome: watery eyes, runny nose, yawning
  4. Disoriented behaviour and impaired judgement, memory and thinking
  5. Psychosis, insomnia and depression
  6. Some also has long-term effect on heart, lung, kidneys and brain.
Combat against substance abuse

The HKSAR government and various community-based organizations provide up-to-date information on substance abuse, its prevention and abstinence program. Some useful links are as follows:

Check these out